- we could resume the future characteristic of work organisation with these simple words: one day the work should be organised in a way that nobody would never more count his time nor his effort!.
Hyacinthe Dubreuil (1883-1971), a french trade-unionist, wrote:
- "Work is a useful action, the action which follows the creation". For him every organisation is built on three elements
- material and economic (stomach)
- intellectual (brain)
- morale and emotional (heart)
Before 1929 Hyacinthe Dubreuil travelled to United States and study Taylorism in Ford company. He worked like the workers and back to France wrote his best-seller "Standards, work in United States, from the point of view of a french worker.
- "...with the taylorism, the material and economic plan is the matter of the trade-unions, the intellectual plan is cancelled out, as well as the morale and emotional plan which is overall ignored."
His solution was the work in "self-working teams". Each self-working team was responsible and autonomous in the "brain and heart" aspects. The team's members had to organise their planning and improve their work continuously, thanks to the discussion, being collectively responsible of it.
Dubreuil's reflexions included all aspects of work, as for example the building where the workers had to achieve the work. According to Dubreuil, all the worker’s movements in a building are prescribed and determined by the way the architect has organised space. Life is organised by the architect in an authoritarian way. Life and work are better organised by those who live and work. Who best knows how the work can be done more efficiently than the worker?
By the late ‘20s, this authoritarian approach to spatial structure was abolished; psychological studies discovered that Ford’s system was not sufficiently effective, because it eliminated the individual’s creative drives and initiative. It turned out that factory labour should rather be viewed as a process of play and interplay, whereby the worker faces constantly changing goals.